A Planet Running Out of Oil
Devastating New Evidence on Insider Trading
1,000 Turn Out To Hear Mike Ruppert
in Portland, Oregon
A Dramatic Court Victory for Internet Journalism
[C] Copyright 2001, Michael C. Ruppert
and From The Wilderness Publications, www.copvcia.com.
All Rights Reserved. Please visit web site for Reprint Policy]
I wanted to write
more for you this month. I spent four days in Washington
from the 11th to the 14th and what I saw there has give
me a texture for my understanding of the world, post-9/11.
More than 30 conventions have been cancelled. The normally
jammed Washington streets are empty of traffic. Three
times I watched cabbies get into fights over fares - so
hungry were they for the tips that would feed their families.
I did a radio show at the ABC-owned radio station WMAL.
Of the 30-40 shows I have done since September 11th this
was the only one with a hostile audience. It was not difficult
to understand why. This is a city where mortgages and
grocery bills are paid by government paychecks.
I heard Congressional
staffers observe that all the new fortress-like security
made them think that perhaps the government was preparing
more for civil unrest than for another terrorist attack.
This, in context with a request made to me by Congressman
Ron Paul, that I mail an advance copy of FTW's video of
the Portland State lecture to the home of one of his staffers
-- (Cont. below)
TO FTW'S TIMELINE STORY "OH LUCY"
In our story dated
11/2/01 in which we presented a complete timeline of events
- before and after September 11th - indicating U.S. government
complicity in the attacks and demonstrating an agenda
other than what we are being told, we made a small error.
We would like to
In what was previously
Item #16 of the timeline we stated that 23,000 British
troops plus the largest British Naval Armada since the
Falkland Islands War had been "pre-positioned"
in Oman in an operation called "Essential Harvest."
In fact, the deployment
of British troops was underway and had been planned for
four years but the troops had not yet arrived in Oman.
This coincides with writings from Zbigniew Brzezinski
and other evidence showing that the current war had been
in the preparatory stages for at least that long. The
correct name of the Operation is "Swift Sword."
The attacks of
September 11th caused a brief hiccup in the British deployment
but - as we have confirmed from British military web sites
and The Guardian - the huge deployment to Oman did take
place, conveniently, as had been planned.
It was just in
time to support U.S. military operations in Afghanistan.
The timeline story
has also been enhanced with shocking new revelations from
the BBC's Greg Palast (See Item #2).
The story and the
online Nov 20, issue of FTW had been corrected and we
apologize for any inconvenience.
The trust of our
readers is the most important thing we possess. Therefore,
we will always make efforts to correct any inaccuracies,
no matter how small, so that you may quote us with confidence.
-- No Longer
In the Wilderness
1,000 Turn Out
In Oregon to Hear Mike Ruppert
Expose Government Complicity in the WTC, Pentagon Attacks
FTW, December 5,
2001 - On November 28th an estimated 1,000 people came
from as far away as Seattle and San Francisco to Portland
State University to see FTW Publisher/Editor Mike
Ruppert give a 2.5 hour lecture and documentary
presentation on the events surrounding the September 11th
attacks and their aftermath. Starting with an offer of
$1,000 to anyone who could show that any of the sources
he cited were not authentic or misrepresented, Ruppert
launched into an display of more than 40 visual exhibits
showing government complicity in and foreknowledge of
The event was organized
by the campus newspaper The Rear Guard and its editor
Dimitris Desyllas. "I never expected that we would
have this kind of turnout," Desyllas said. "But
it is obvious that the public has very deep concerns about
what we are being told and what the government is doing.
We eventually brought in 860 chairs and there were people
all around the walls and on the floor." One of the
volunteer videographers at the event was a Native American
spiritual teacher of the Dakota Sioux nation, Skip Mahawk.
Mahawk, then with the 101st Airborne Division, won the
Congressional Medal of Honor at the legendary 1969 Vietnam
War battle known as Hamburger Hill. Mahawk refused to
accept the decoration.
was full of documentary evidence. After pointing out -
among other things - that the Chief of Pakistani intelligence
(approved for his position by the CIA) ordered a $100,000
wire transfer to lead hijacker Mohammed Atta; that the
Bush family had business dealings with the bin Laden family
through the Carlyle Group, that the U.S. and British governments
had extensive military deployments already in the area
before the attacks, and that the Bush administration had
ordered the FBI to stop investigating two relatives of
Osama bin Laden living near CIA headquarters this January,
Ruppert launched into the centerpiece of the lecture which
was a visual presentation of his timeline of events around
September 11th - which left some members of the audience
was also paid to a newly resurrected Unocal pipeline to
transport oil and natural gas from the Central Asian republics
to the Pakistani
coast for sale
to China and Japan. Henry Kissinger is on both ends of
and anger was strongest as Ruppert presented selected
quotes from "The Grand Chessboard," a 1997 book
by former Carter National Security Advisor and member
of the Trilateral Commission, Zbigniew Brzezinski. Those
quotes - along with maps of Central Asia - indicated clearly
that the current war had been in the planning stages for
at least four years. Two particular quotes from Brzezinski
indicating the need for a Pearl Harbor-like attack evoked
boos and hisses for the intelligence expert and professor
who also served in the Reagan Administration.
the lecture with an analysis of the assault on American
civil liberties since September 11th in the form of the
so-called PATRIOT Act and several unilateral decisions
made by President Bush and Attorney General John Ashcroft
which have effectively nullified three amendments to the
Bill of Rights and taken away part of another. He also
showed documentary evidence from Congress supporting his
claim that the Bush administration was going to loot the
Social Security Trust Fund.
The audience responded
to the lecture with a two minute standing ovation. [This
story with photos is on the web site at www.copvcia.com.]
Bigger Picture (Cont. from Page 1) - helped me to understand
better the new America we live in. The reason for Paul's
request was simple: members of congress still find it
hard to get mail.
I saw first hand
the power of the American Israeli Political Action Committee
(AIPAC) in a mark-up of a resolution condemning Iraq.
But I did not fall for planted government spin -- coming
from places like FOX News -implying that Israel is somehow
a real villain here. Israel can fight dirty. Israel can
fight ruthlessly. But it is, like the cab drivers I saw
on the streets, fighting for its life. And the Palestinians
are the world's unwanted.
As the bin Laden
tape bombed on world television on Friday and Saturday,
even before its many holes started appearing in the European
press and ABC news, I learned that my mother was dying.
Between frantic phone calls to the ER and while making
decisions to remove her from life support, I boarded an
American Airlines flight home to be there for her last
On that flight
I met a flight attendant who had lost her best friends
on Flight 77 when it crashed into the Pentagon. She consoled
me over my mother and I consoled her over the loss of
her friends. There was no shock or outrage in her face
as she listened to what I knew about 9/11 - only grief.
Whether Jew or
Arab, Christian or Muslim, government employee or cab
driver, member of congress of journalist, we are all ultimately
bound and united to each other by only one thing - our
humanity. And in our psychological need to make sense
out of things we will surely miss the bigger picture if
we forget this and seek false comfort in stereotypes.
I would have written
more for you this month but my mother died on December
16th. And I have found it necessary to stop and be human
for a moment.
and Narconews Win Big!
Now as Protected as the New York Times
"In a court
decision that was largely overlooked by the mainstream
media, a New York Supreme Court judge has issued a ruling
in a libel case that extends the same speech protections
to online journalists that their print, radio and TV colleagues
have enjoyed since the famous Sullivan v. New York Times
decision of 1964.
it means that states, politicians and powerful corporate
entities will have a much harder time taking online journalists
to court in the United States for statements that may
have been made in the U.S., or even in other countries."
- The Christian Science Monitor, 12/20/01
Al Giordano, FTW's
good friend and fearless journalist beat the suit by Mexican
bank Banamex to silence his internet website at www.narconews.com. For details
on the story see FTW (Vol. III, No. 11 - 2/28/01) or go
to Al's site or visit:
The Background is Oil
Dale Allen Pfeiffer
Click Here To Read The
Background is Oil Story
OF DEATH -- INSIDER
TRADING AND 9-11
Flocco - Edited by Michael C. Ruppert
6, 2001 -- On October 9th, FTW broke a story on insider
trading connected to the 9-11 attacks on the World Trade
Center that sparked worldwide controversy. In that story
we reported how the Israeli Herzliyya Institute for Counterterrorism
had documented that unknown individuals -- with accurate
foreknowledge of the attacks -- had purchased an obvious
and unusually large number of "put" options
on United and American Airlines shortly before the attacks.
companies hit hard by the insider trading included Axa
Re(insurance) and Munich Re as well as American investment
giants Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley.
are essentially a bet that a stock's price will fall abruptly.
The seller, having entered into a time-specific contract
with a buyer, does not need to own the actual shares at
the time the contract is purchased. Therefore, if a holder
of the put option has a contract to sell a stock such
as American Airlines for (e.g.) $100 a share on a Friday
and the stock falls to $50 on Wednesday, they can purchase
the stock, sell it on Friday and double their money. The
person on the other end of the contract (the call) has
an obligation to buy the shares at the agreed upon price.
The bank handling the transaction as a broker is the only
entity knowing the identities of both parties.
revealed that the A.B. Brown (Alex Brown) investment arm
of the banking giant Deutschebank/A.B. Brown had been
headed until 1998 by the man who is now the Executive
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency - A.B. "Buzzy"
Krongard. In fact, Krongard is but one name in a long
history of CIA interconnections to stock trading and the
world's financial markets. We also discussed, in detail,
the evidence indicating that the CIA and other intelligence
agencies monitor stock trading in real time for the purpose
of identifying potential attacks of any nature that might
damage the U.S. economy.
FTW story is located at: http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/
FTW's initial story - not having read any of five related
stories dating back to an October 2000 piece on PROMIS
software - claimed that we had not made the links to establish
culpability. But we knew that the links were there, that
our case was solid, and that new evidence would not go
undiscovered for long.
reporter Tom Flocco digs deep and strikes pay dirt in
a three-part series that reveals not only deeper links
between the CIA, Wall Street and the insider trades of
9-11, but also discloses that a key executive at Deutschebank
- an American - became, just weeks before the attacks,
a convicted felon. His crime: conspiracy to launder drug
money to arrange the purchase of U.S. weapons - in association
with two Pakistanis who also attempted to acquire nuclear
bomb components - for use by Islamic fundamentalist terrorists.
CIA Does Not
Deny Stock Monitoring Outside U.S.
(Part I in a series)
-- In a returned phone call from the Central Intelligence
Agency, press spokesman Tom Crispell denied that the CIA
was monitoring "real-time," pre-September 11,
stock option trading activity within United States borders
using such software as the Prosecutor‘s Management Information
would be illegal. We only operate outside the United
States," the intelligence official said.
when asked whether the CIA had been using PROMIS beyond
American borders to scrutinize world financial markets
for national security purposes, Crispell replied, "I
have no way of knowing what operations are [being affected
by our assets] outside the country."
media reporting confirms that investors at Deutschebank-Alex
Brown and other global financial entities may have profited
from prior knowledge of the attacks while purchasing disproportionate
pre-attack put option contracts on targeted U.S. airlines
and related insurance or investment firms. All of these
firms suffered serious losses resulting from the September
11th attacks and their stocks abruptly plummeted.
that the CIA or other U.S. intelligence agencies were
monitoring financial markets and had seen these trades
before the attacks would have staggering implications
for thousands of victims' families.
The CIA official
also declined to comment on the actual capabilities of
PROMIS. The highly technical software has been described
as a system that "interfaces with any database...as
police can input an alleged terrorist's name or credit
card, and the software will provide details of the person's
movements through purchases...," according to an
11-10-01 Toronto Sun report.
of PROMIS is that it is not only capable of interfacing
with a wide variety of data bases in different computer
languages and then integrating the data, but it has also
been modified for intelligence purposes. It has then been
sold throughout the world by spy agencies through third
parties to clients such as banks and investment houses
envious of its unique capabilities. One key modification
by agencies such as the CIA and Mossad - not disclosed
to most users -- is a secret "back door" that
permits those with the right codes to enter databases
undetected, retrieve and/or alter information, and leave
without a trace. PROMIS has been extensively reported
as being used throughout the world's financial markets
because of its versatility in facilitating international
the issue of pre-attack stock screening by U.S. intelligence,
the Canadian daily revealed that U.S. police said many
of the suspected terrorists were apprehended (and detained)
"through use of the state-of-the-art computer software
2000, CIA director George J. Tenet told the Senate that
Osama bin Laden's group (Al Q'aeda) was "embracing
the opportunities offered by recent leaps in information
technology." A FOX News story and stories in FTW
disclosed in November that Osama bin Laden was believed
to have the software.
of CIA monitoring of stock trades follows on the heels
of wide reports indicating that investigators are carefully
probing the insider trading with its resultant profits,
reported to be in the 10's of millions of dollars -- some
of which a Deutschebank investor has yet to claim.
A promis is
also declined comment when asked whether the Treasury
Department or FBI had questioned CIA Executive Director
and former Deutschebank-Alex Brown CEO, A.B. "Buzzy"
Krongard, about CIA monitoring of financial markets using
PROMIS and his former position as overseer of Brown's
"private client" relations. [Note: Krongard
stayed with A.B. Brown to head "private client"
operations after it was acquired by Banker's Trust in
1997. As Krongard was leaving in 1998 to join the CIA
as counselor to Director George Tenet, Banker's Trust
was acquired by Deutschebank. Banker's Trust had been
previously criticized by the U.S. Senate and regulators
for money laundering. Krongard was promoted to Executive
Director at CIA in March 2001. - MCR]
-- including a 9/28/01 story in the Asian Wall Street
Journal and a 10/1/01 story in The Guardian -- indicate
that investigators are checking Deutschebank's alleged
links to Saudi "private banking," terrorist
bank accounts, and $2.5 million in unclaimed United Airlines
(UAL) put options profits; however, no government acknowledgement
had ever been given of CIA's alleged use of PROMIS software
prior to the attacks.
In a recent
phone conversation, when asked about alleged terrorist
ties to Deutschebank and potential pre-attack CIA trade
monitoring via PROMIS, Treasury Department spokesman Rob
Nichols remarked, "This is clearly an interesting
line of questioning regarding conflicts of interest."
However, news searches
indicate that no member of Congress has publicly questioned
whether wealthy terrorist-connected Saudi nationals participated
in the private client operations of Deutschebank-Alex
Brown. Osama bin Laden and almost all of the alleged 9-11
hijackers are of Saudi nationality. Also, no member of
Congress expressed public interest in asking Krongard
about whether or not the CIA affected "real-time"
pre-attack trade monitoring using PROMIS software at any
[Note: Under a
program known as Echelon, the governments of the U.S.,
Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand routinely circumvent
prohibitions on domestic electronic spying by having the
agencies of the other governments do it for them. - MCR]
editor and publisher of From The Wilderness (FTW) newsletter
has been interviewed by both the House and Senate for
his expertise on illegal covert CIA operations. He said
recently that, "It is well documented that the CIA
has long monitored such (suspicious or unusual) trades
-- in real time -- as potential warnings of terrorist
attacks and other economic moves contrary to U.S. interests."
Ruppert was the
first to point out after 9-11 that CIA Executive Director
Buzzy Krongard has extensive past ties to Deutschebank-Alex
Brown. Ruppert added, "There is abundant and
clear evidence that a number of transactions in financial
markets indicated specific [criminal] foreknowledge of
the September 11 attacks...and the firm which was used
to place put options on UAL stock was, until 1998, managed
by the man who is now in the number three position at
Ruppert also confirmed
that two October 17 calls to the FBI resulted in spokespersons
declining to give their names after revealing that "the
FBI has discontinued use of the PROMIS software."
Moreover, on October 24, Justice Department spokesperson
Loren Pfeifle declined to answer any questions about where,
when, or how PROMIS had been used and would only say,
"I can confirm that the DOJ has discontinued use
of the program." This followed almost 17 years of
denials by the FBI and the Department of Justice -- in
court and under oath -- that they used the software at
all in a law enforcement or intelligence capacity.
lofty intelligence community position, combined with his
prior leadership of a financial institution allegedly
connected to terrorist hijacker bank accounts [see Part
II], suspicious UAL options contracts, and "private
banking" is so controversial that it has not as yet
sparked any official investigation. That said, the evidence
is substantial enough to potentially expose the prior-knowledge
issue -- if Congress chooses to act.
And while Treasury
Department official Rob Nichols agreed that unresolved
conflict of interest questions remain, the CIA Executive
Director is still currently charged with supervision of
the U.S. intelligence investigation of his former firm
and its "private banking" operations.
Reuters has reported
that Krongard "was [also] involved in setting up
the CIA experiment into investing in high-tech companies
with the goal of acquiring innovative technology for its
Commenting on the
CIA's venture capital firm In-Q-Tel, started in 1999 to
encourage development of private-sector technologies for
use in the intelligence world, Krongard said on August
1, 2001 -- just 5 weeks before the Trade Center attacks
-- "I think In-Q-Tel's a wonderful model...in accessing
the capabilities of the private sector."
On October 16,
Fox News reported that, according to sources, accused
Russian spy and FBI agent Robert Hanssen sold high-tech
PROMIS software to Russia, and that Osama bin Laden allegedly
purchased it from Russian organized crime sources.
Fox reported that,
"Government officials suspect bin Laden may have
the highly sophisticated U.S. government software that
has been used by several other governments, including
the United States, for classified intelligence and law
The admission by
U.S. government officials that PROMIS was widely used
by a number of governments further blurs the pre-attack
stock monitoring issue since intelligence officials will
likely continue to decline comment, save for closed-door
congressional oversight hearings or challenges by those
victims' families choosing to bypass settlements adjudicated
by the Attorney General's office in favor of intervention
by the courts.
The buck stops
Tom Crispell, the
CIA official, was cooperative while attempting to maintain
intelligence confidentiality in the face of what he termed
as "ongoing investigations surrounding the Twin Towers
tragedies by the CIA, FBI, Justice, and Treasury Departments."
However, this was in great contrast to an FBI spokesperson
who refused to offer either his first or last name, while
declining comment on any matter related to events of September
During a series
of calls, some spokespersons quickly attempted to defer
and deflect questions to another government agency, i.e.
"We don't deal with that issue. Call the other [entity]."
However, many would
agree, given the evidence, that the 9-11 terrorism is
closely linked to economic issues. President Bush has
stated that this is "economic warfare." Yet
few appear to be questioning an apparent paucity of critical
information sharing among key government agencies on the
As U.S. investigators
retrace the financial trails connecting the Twin Towers,
terrorist hijackers and their accomplices, many of whom
may still be in the country, evidence is being turned
up by FBI, CIA, Justice, Treasury and NSA that does involve
global banking conglomerate Deutschebank-Alex Brown.
$2.5 million unclaimed
UAL investor profits
For example, according
to a 10-19-2001 Wall Street Journal report, an unnamed
investor purchased 2,000 United Airlines (UAL) put option
contracts through Deutsche Bank-Alex Brown on September
6 -- betting the stock would shortly plummet. And
USA Today reported that an individual purchased 810 UAL
puts on August 6.
A Baron's source
claimed on 10-8-2001 that the pre-attack UAL order placed
through Deutsche Bank was for 2,500 contracts which were
"split into 500 chunks each, directing each order
to different U.S. exchanges around the country simultaneously."
According to San
Francisco Chronicle reporters Christian Berthelsen and
Scott Winokur a source familiar with the UAL trades said
investors have yet to claim $2.5 million in profits on
contracts purchased before United airliners crashed into
a New York Trade Tower and a deserted Pennsylvania field
on September 11.
The Chronicle source
also identified Deutschebank-Alex Brown as the investment
firm used to purchase some of the UAL options; and Rohini
Pragasam, a bank spokeswoman, declined to comment on the
The source (who
requested anonymity) said, "Usually, if someone has
a windfall like that, you take the money and run. Whoever
did this thought the Exchange [NYSE] would not be closed
for four days. This smells real bad."
The German news
weekly Der Spiegel revealed that Deutschebank also handled
accounts worth about $100 million for Osama bin Laden's
family. These were part of 10 accounts it suspected were
linked to terrorists or terrorist activities and which
it later handed over to German authorities after the attacks,
according to a report in Britain's The Guardian. But no
further comments have been forthcoming from the financial
Bank President Ernst Welteke said a study -- concerning
principal hijack subjects residing in Germany and unusual
patterns in short-selling of insurance, airline and other
financial company shares -- pointed to "terrorism
insider trading" in those stocks.
The SEC Is Investigating
A phone interview
with Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) press spokesman
John Nester, of the Washington, DC office, revealed that
the Commission, "has already forwarded a general
request to Deutschebank-Alex Brown and other investment
firms for unspecified information related to the suspicious
put option contracts placed prior to the attacks on the
Trade Towers and the Pentagon." But the spokesman
declined comment regarding the identities of complying
banks or the contents of any information obtained.
his response by adding that "according to SEC Associate
Director of Enforcement Bill Baker -- who just spoke on
a panel outside New York last week -- our SEC probe is
much broader than investigations made by countries in
Europe (who also lost citizens), many of whom have already
closed their financial investigations of investment banks
like Deutschebank." No results of those probes have
been made public.
While the SEC media
director said "the investigation is still ongoing
with no current conclusions," Nester (speaking for
the SEC), had difficulty explaining the job description
of current New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Executive Vice
President for Enforcement, David P. Doherty. He would
only say that the NYSE "regulates itself as an SRO
or self-regulating organization...." This vague answer
is all the more provocative because Doherty is a retired
General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Nester added, "The
SEC has oversight responsibility regarding the NYSE, and
we are also working with Justice, Treasury, and the FBI,
having set up professional point men at each firm we are
looking at -- so we don‘t have to reinvent the wheel every
time we call a company [related to the attacks] to get
an answer to a question."
the wheel" statement raised an eyebrow regarding
the level of corporate cooperation in the investigation,
although Nester declined to add further comment.
In Spite of
CIA Ties the NYSE Is Little Help
When asked about
the status of the investigation into the disproportionate
pre-attack stock option trades involving United and American
Airlines, Merrill Lynch, Marsh and McLennan Insurance,
Morgan Stanley, Citigroup, Bear Stearns, and American
Express, etc. -- all icons of American capitalism -- NYSE
Communications Director Ray Pellecchia said, "We
don't even confirm that there is an ongoing investigation."
to the SEC as a matter of course," Pellecchia added.
But after being referred to as a "persistent piece
of work," this writer asked Pellecchia to discuss
Doherty's role in the investigations. He said, "We
stand by this statement."
And after pressing
for information about what the NYSE is actually doing
to investigate the suspicious trades on behalf of thousands
of victims' families who may be concerned about the "prior-knowledge"
issue, Pellecchia still declined to confirm that Doherty's
enforcement office had even sent a report to the SEC.
When asked why
so many former key CIA executives currently hold, or have
held in the past, top level executive management positions
connected in some way to the stock market via either the
SEC, NYSE, or other investment banking entities, Pellecchia
replied tersely, "I am quite aware of Mr. Doherty's
background and experience."
declined to discuss anything related to current CIA Executive
Director A.B. "Buzzy" Krongard and his past
relationship with Alex Brown.
as to who will ultimately take center stage in investigating
conflicts of interest or the real-time monitoring of world
financial markets by U.S. intelligence entities to protect
national security; let alone terrorist ties to wealthy
Saudi private clients at global financial institutions
having direct access (via correspondent banking relationships)
to U.S. banks.
For while thousands
of American families, victimized by terrorism, still remain
numb with grief, information is being advanced daily regarding
what could be described by some as casual, if not negligent,
long-term, slipshod governmental responsiveness to fundamental
internal national security and safety questions -- or
Tom Flocco is a
freelance writer and researcher. (email: TomFlocco@cs.com)
What Is Important
and What Isn't
Bush's decision on December 13, for the third time in
American history, to invoke executive privilege by refusing
to surrender FBI records to the House Government Reform
Committee. A Constitutional crisis may be in the wings.
Chairman Dan Burton *R) declared, "We've got a dictatorial
president and a Justice Department that does not want
Congress involved. … Your guy's acting like a king."
The Osama bin Laden "smoking gun: video. (Yawn)
Important: As the
government moves ahead with unspecific plans related to
smallpox, anthrax and Ebola - and as a new Ebola outbreak
sweeps through central Africa - five of the world's leading
microbiologists, including Dr. Don C. Wiley of Harvard
have died suddenly or under mysterious circumstances in
Important: A loosening
of restrictions in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
Court (FISA) that allows secret wiretaps to be initiated
when only a "significant" purpose is the collection
of foreign intelligence rather than the "sole purpose."
last month's "Timeline" story we incorrectly
identified the British operation which moved 23,000 troops
as Operation Essential Harvest. The correct name is Operation